Air infiltration: The amount of air leaking in and out of a building through cracks in walls, windows and doors.
Air-leakage (air infiltration): The amount of air leaking in and out of a building through cracks in walls, windows, and doors.
Annealed glass: Standard sheet of float glass which has not been heat-treated.
Annealing: Heating above the critical or recrystallization temperature, then controlled cooling of metal, glass, or other materials to eliminate the effects of cold-working, relieve internal stresses, or improve strength, ductility, or other properties.
Argon: An inert, nontoxic gas used in insulating glass units to reduce heat transfer.
ASTM. American Society for Testing and Materials: Organization that sets standards for testing of materials.
Awning: Window similar to a casement except the sash is hinged at the top and always swings out.
Bay window: An arrangement of three or more individual window units, attached so as to project from the building at various angles. In a three-unit bay, the center section is normally fixed, with the end panels operable as single-hung or casement windows.
Bead: A wood strip against which a swinging sash closes, as in a casement window. Also, a finishing trim at the sides and top of the frame to hold the sash, as in a fixed sash or a double-hung window. Also referred to as bead stop.
BOCA: Building Officials and Code Administrators.
Bottom rail: The bottom horizontal member of a window sash.
Bow window: A rounded bay window that projects from the wall in an arc shape, commonly consisting of five sashes.
Brick molding: A standard milled wood trim piece that covers the gap between the window frame and masonry.
Btu (B.T.U.): An abbreviation for British Thermal Unit, the heat required to increase the temperature of one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit.
Casing: Exposed molding or framing around a window or door, on either the inside or outside, to cover the space between the window frame or jamb and the wall.
Caulking: A mastic compound for filling joints and sealing cracks to prevent leakage of water and air, commonly made of silicone, bituminous, acrylic, or rubber-based material.
Check rail: The bottom horizontal member of the upper sash and the top horizontal member of the lower sash which meet at the middle of a double-hung window.
Clerestory: A window in the upper part of a lofty room that admits light to the center of the room.
Climatemaster®: Unique compression fit roof system made for any climate. Two-piece mullion system joins the roof sections together to create a gasket-like compression seal that will provide years of protection.
Condensation: The deposit of water vapor from the air on any cold surface whose temperature is below the dew point, such as a cold window glass or frame that is exposed to humid indoor air.
Conduction: Heat transfer through a solid material by contact of one molecule to the next. Heat flows from a higher-temperature area to a lower-temperature one.
Convection: A heat transfer process involving motion in a fluid (such as air) caused by the difference in density of the fluid and the action of gravity. Convection affects heat transfer from the glass surface to room air, and between two panes of glass.
Dewpoint: The temperature at which water vapor in air will condense at a given state of humidity and pressure.
Divided light: A window with a number of smaller panes of glass separated and held in place by muntins.
DOE-2.1E: A building-simulation computer program used to calculate total annual energy use.
Double glazing: In general, two thicknesses of glass separated by an air space within an opening to improve insulation against heat transfer and/or sound transmission. In factory-made double glazing units, the air between the glass sheets is thoroughly dried and the space is sealed airtight, eliminating possible condensation and providing superior insulating properties.
Double-hung window: A window consisting of two sashes operating in a rectangular frame, in which both the upper and lower halves can be slid up and down. A counterbalance mechanism usually holds the sash in place.
Double-strength glass: Sheet glass between 0.115″ and 0.133″ (33.38 mm) thick.
Drip: A projecting fin or a groove at the outer edge of a sill, soffit, or other projecting member in a wall designed to interrupt the flow of water downward over the wall or inward across the soffit.
Emergency exit window: Fire escape window (egress window) large enough for a person to climb out. In U.S. building codes, each bedroom must be provided with an exit window. The exact width, area, and height from the floor are specified in the building codes.
Emittance: The ratio of the radiant flux emitted by a specimen to that emitted by a blackbody at the same temperature and under the same conditions.
EPS (expanded polystyrene): A rigid plastic foam insulation that provides high insulation values in addition to having strong structural integrity, being environmentally safe, and having a closed cell structure that prevents excessive moisture absorption.
Exterior stop: The removable glazing bead that holds the glass or panel in place when it is on the exterior side of the light or panel, in contrast to an interior stop located on the interior side of the glass.
Extrusion: The process of producing vinyl or aluminum shapes by forcing heated material through an orifice in a die. Also, any item made by this process.
Eyebrow windows: Low, inward-opening windows with a bottom-hinged sash. These attic windows built into the top molding of the house are sometimes called “lie-on-your-stomach” or “slave” windows. Often found on Greek Revival and Italianate houses.
Fenestration: The placement of window openings in a building wall, one of the important elements in controlling the exterior appearance of a building. Also, a window, door, or skylight and its associated interior or exterior elements, such as shades or blinds.
Fiberglass: A composite material made by embedding glass fibers in a polymer matrix. May be used as a diffusing material in sheet form, or as a standard sash and frame element.
Fixed light: A pane of glass installed directly into non-operating framing members; also, the opening or space for a pane of glass in a non-operating frame.
Fixed panel: An inoperable panel of a sliding glass door or slider window.
Fixed window: A window with no operating sashes.
Flashing: Sheet metal or other material applied to seal and protect the joints formed by different materials or surfaces.
Float glass: Glass formed by a process of floating the material on a bed of molten metal. It produces a high-optical-quality glass with parallel surfaces, without polishing and grinding.
Fogging: A deposit of contamination left on the inside surface of a sealed insulating glass unit due to extremes of temperatures or failed seals.
Frame: The fixed frame of a window which holds the sash or casement as well as hardware.
Glass: An inorganic transparent material composed of silica (sand), soda (sodium carbonate), and lime (calcium carbonate) with small quantities of alumina, boric, or magnesia oxides.
Glazing: The glass or plastic panes in a window, door, or skylight.
Glazing bead: A molding or stop around the inside of a window frame to hold the glass in place.
Garden window (Greenhouse window): A three-dimensional window that projects from the exterior wall and usually has glazing on all sides except the bottom, which serves as a shelf.
Header: The upper horizontal member of a window frame. Also called head.
Heat gain: The transfer of heat from outside to inside by means of conduction, convection, and radiation through all surfaces of a house.
Heat loss: The transfer of heat from inside to outside by means of conduction, convection, and radiation through all surfaces of a house.
Heat-strengthened glass: Glass that is reheated, after forming, to just below melting point, and then cooled, forming a compressed surface that increases its strength beyond that of typical annealed glass.
Hinged windows: Windows (casement, awning, and hopper) with an operating sash that has hinges on one side. See also Projected window.
Hopper: Window with sash hinged at the bottom.
Horizontal slider: A window with a movable panel that slides horizontally.
ICC International Code Council: A national organization that publishes model codes for adoption by states and other agencies. Codes include the International Building Code (IBC) and the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC).
IECC: International Energy Conservation Code published by the ICC. The successor to the Model Energy Code, which is cited in the 1992 U.S. Energy Policy Act (EPAct) as the baseline for residential Energy Codes in the United States.
Infrared radiation: Invisible, electromagnetic radiation beyond red light on the spectrum, with wavelengths greater than 0.7 microns.
Insulating glass: Two or more pieces of glass spaced apart and hermetically sealed to form a single glazed unit with one or more air spaces in between. Also called double glazing.
Insulation: Construction materials used for protection from noise, heat, cold or fire.
Insul-deck™: High-performance deck flooring using structural insulated panels composed of EPS foam core with TCA-Guard® Protection sandwiched between OSB panels.
Interlocker: An upright frame member of a panel in a sliding glass door which engages with a corresponding member in an adjacent panel when the door is closed. Also called interlocking stile.
IRC: International Residential Code developed by the International Code Council (ICC).
Jamb: A vertical member at the side of a window frame, or the horizontal member at the top of the window frame, as in head jamb.
Krypton: An inert, nontoxic gas used in insulating windows to reduce heat transfer.
Krystal Kote®: Clear coating that prevents scratches, corrosion, and discoloration for long-lasting beauty. Used on aluminum panels.
Lift: Handle for raising the lower sash in a double-hung window. Also called sash lift.
Light: A window; a pane of glass within a window. Double-hung windows are designated by the number of lights in upper and lower sash, as in six-over-six. Also spelled informally lite.
Light-to-solar-gain ratio: A measure of the ability of a glazing to provide light without excessive solar heat gain. It is the ratio between the visible transmittance of a glazing and its solar heat gain coefficient. Abbreviated LSG.
Lintel: A horizontal member above a window or door opening that supports the structure above.
LoĒ³ Glass: Coated insulated glass that transmits light, blocks solar gain, and reflects heat in the summer while reducing the loss of radiant heat in the winter. The glass is sputter coated with microscopically thin, optically transparent layers of silver sandwiched between layers of anti-reflective metal oxide coatings. The glass blocks 95 percent of the sun’s harmful ultraviolet rays and delivers a remarkable 96 percent performance improvement in winter nighttime insulation (R-value) compared to non-coated air-filled insulating glass.
Long-wave infrared radiation: Invisible radiation, beyond red light on the electromagnetic spectrum (above 3.5 micro meters), emitted by warm surfaces such as a body at room temperature radiating to a cold window surface.
Low-conductance spacers: An assembly of materials designed to reduce heat transfer at the edge of an insulating window. Spacers are placed between the panes of glass in a double- or triple-glazed window.
Low-emittance (Low-E) coating: Microscopically thin, virtually invisible, metal or metallic oxide layers deposited on a window or skylight glazing surface primarily to reduce the U-factor by suppressing radiative heat flow. A typical type of low-E coating is transparent to the solar spectrum (visible light and short-wave infrared radiation) and reflective of long-wave infrared radiation.
Micron: One millionth (10-6) of a metric meter.
Mil: One thousandth of an inch, or 0.0254 millimeter.
Mullion: A major structural vertical or horizontal member between window units or sliding glass doors.
Muntin: A secondary framing member (horizontal, vertical, or diagonal) to hold the window panes in the sash. This term is often confused with mullion.
Muntin grilles: Wood, plastic, or metal grids designed for a single-light sash to give the appearance of muntins in a multilight sash, but removable for ease in cleaning the window.
NEC:The National Electrical Code is Part 70 of a set of codes and standards set forth by the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). It is comprised of a set of rules that when properly applied are intended to provide a safe installation of electrical wiring and equipment.
NFRC: National Fenestration Rating Council.
NSA: National Sunroom Association is an international, member-directed trade association dedicated to the advancement of the manufacture and construction of safe, energy efficient and environmentally conscious sunrooms, patio rooms, and solariums.
Operable window: Window that can be opened for ventilation.
Operator: Crank-operated device for opening and closing casement or jalousie windows.
Panel: A major component of a sliding glass door, consisting of a light of glass in a frame installed within the main (or outer) frame of the door. A panel may be sliding or fixed.
Panning: In replacement window work, the outside aluminum trim that can extend around the perimeter of the window opening; used to cover up the old window material. Panning can be installed in the opening before the window, or can be attached directly to the window before installation.
Particle dispersed glazing: Glazing in which the orientation of small particles between two sheets of glass is controlled electrically, thus changing its optical properties.
Parting stop: A narrow strip, either integral or applied, that holds a sash or panel in position in a frame.
Picture window: A large, fixed window framed so that it is usually, but not always, longer horizontally than vertically to provide a panoramic view.
Polyvinylchloride (PVC): An extruded or molded plastic material used for window framing and as a thermal barrier for aluminum windows.
PRO: Professional Remodelers of Ohio is the remodeling industry resource in Northeast Ohio for information and advocacy for consumers, community and members.
Radiation: The transfer of heat in the form of electromagnetic waves from one separate surface to another. Energy from the sun reaches the earth by radiation, and a person’s body can lose heat to a cold window or skylight surface in a similar way.
Rail: Horizontal member of a window sash.
Reflectance: The ratio of reflected radiant energy to incident radiant energy.
Reflective glass: Window glass coated to reflect radiation striking the surface of the glass.
Refraction: The deflection of a light ray from a straight path when it passes at an oblique angle from one medium (such as air) to another (such as glass).
Relative humidity: The percentage of moisture in the air in relationship to the amount of moisture the air could hold at that given temperature. At 100 percent relative humidity, moisture condenses and falls as rain.
Retrofitting: Adding or replacing items on existing buildings. Typical retrofit products are replacement doors and windows, insulation, storm windows, caulking, weatherstripping, vents, landscaping.
RESFEN: A computer program used to calculate energy use based on window selection in residential buildings.
Roof window: A fixed or operable window similar to a skylight placed in the sloping surface of a roof.
Rough opening: The opening in a wall into which a door or window is to be installed.
Sash: The portion of a window that includes the glass and the framing sections directly attached to the glass, not to be confused with the complete frame into which the sash sections are fitted.
Screen: Woven mesh of metal, plastic, or fiberglass stretched over a window opening to permit air to pass through, but not insects.
Sealant: A compressible plastic material used to seal any opening or junction of two parts, such as between the glass and a metal sash, commonly made of silicone, butyl tape, or polysulfide.
Shading coefficient (SC): A measure of the ability of a window or skylight to transmit solar heat, relative to that ability for 1/8-inch clear, double- strength, single glass. It is being phased out in favor of the solar heat gain coefficient, and is approximately equal to the SHGC multiplied by 1.15. It is expressed as a number without units between 0 and 1. The lower a window’s solar heat gain coefficient or shading coefficient, the less solar heat it transmits, and the greater is its shading ability.
Sheet glass: A transparent, flat glass found in older windows, now largely replaced by float glass.
Sill: The lowest horizontal member in a door, window, or sash frame.
Sill track: The track provided at the sill of a sliding glass door. Also, the sill member incorporating such a track.
Simulated divided lights: A window that has the appearance of a number of smaller panes of glass separated by muntins, but actually is a larger glazing unit with the muntins placed between or on the surfaces of the glass layers.
Single glazing: Single thickness of glass in a window or door.
Single-strength glass: Glass with thickness between 0.085″ and 0.100″ (2.162.57 mm).
Skylight (operable or pivot): A roof window that gives light and ventilation.
Sliding glass door: A door fitted with one or more panels that move horizontally on a track and/or in grooves. Moving action is usually of rolling type (rather than sliding type). Also called gliding door, rolling glass door, and patio sliding door.
Sliding window: A window fitted with one or more sashes opening by sliding horizontally or vertically in grooves provided by frame members. Vertical sliders may be single- or double-hung.
Solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC): The fraction of solar radiation admitted through a window or skylight, both directly transmitted, and absorbed and subsequently released inward. The solar heat gain coefficient has replaced the shading coefficient as the standard indicator of a window’s shading ability. It is expressed as a number between 0 and 1. The lower a window’s solar heat gain coefficient, the less solar heat it transmits, and the greater its shading ability. SHGC can be expressed in terms of the glass alone or can refer to the entire window assembly.
Solar radiation: The total radiant energy from the sun, including ultraviolet and infrared wave lengths as well as visible light.
Solex glass by PPG: Solex glass dramatically reduces harmful UV rays and summer solar heat that enters your sunroom.
Spectrally selective coating: A coated or tinted glazing with optical properties that are transparent to some wavelengths of energy and reflective to others. Typical spectrally selective coatings are transparent to visible light and reflect short-wave and long-wave infrared radiation.
Stile: The upright or vertical edges of a door, window, or screen.
Stool: The shelf-like board of the interior part of the window sill, against which the bottom rail of the sash closes.
Stop: The molding on the inside of a window frame against which the window sash closes; in the case of a double-hung window, the sash slides against the stop. Also called bead, side stop, window stop, and parting stop.
Storm windows: A second set of windows installed on the outside or inside of the primary windows to provide additional insulation and wind protection.
Superwindow: A window with a very low U-factor, typically less than 0.15, achieved through the use of multiple glazings, low-E coatings, and gas fills.
Tempered glass: Glass created by heating it to just below its melting point, then rapidly cooling its surface and allowing the inner core to cool naturally. It is approximately 5 times stronger than regular glass. It can also “flex” significantly more without breaking and it resists impact, shock, thermal and mechanical stress. If it does breaks, tempered glass will fragment into small rounded pieces giving it a strong safety advantage. It is required as safety glazing in patio doors, entrance doors, side lights, and other hazardous locations. It cannot be recut after tempering.
Thermal break: An element of low conductance placed between elements of higher conductance to reduce the flow of heat. Often used in aluminum windows.
Thermal expansion: Change in dimension of a material as a result of temperature change.
Thermogram: An image of an object taken with an infrared camera that shows surface temperature variations.
Threshold: The member that lies at the bottom of a sliding glass door or swinging door; the sill of a doorway.
Tilt window: A single- or double-hung window whose operable sash can be tilted into the room for interior washability.
Tinted glass: Glass colored by incorporation of a mineral admixture. Any tinting reduces both visual and radiant transmittance.
Transmittance: The percentage of radiation that can pass through glazing. Transmittance can be defined for different types of light or energy, e.g., visible light transmittance, UV transmittance, or total solar energy transmittance.
Transom: A horizontal transverse beam or bar in a frame; a crosspiece separating a door or the like from a window or fanlight above it. Also, a window above a door or other window, built on and commonly hinged to a transom.
Transom window: The window sash located above a door. Also called transom light.
Triple glazing: Three panes of glass or plastic with two air spaces between.
UL: Underwriters Laboratories Inc. (UL) is an independent, not-for-profit product safety testing and certification organization. UL has tested products for public safety for over a century. Each year more than 17 billion UL Marks are applied to products worldwide.
Ultraviolet light (UV): The invisible rays of the spectrum that are outside of the visible spectrum at its short-wavelength violet end. Ultraviolet rays are found in everyday sunlight and can cause fading of paint finishes, carpets, and fabrics.
Visible transmittance (VT): The percentage or fraction of the visible spectrum (380 to 720 nanometers) weighted by the sensitivity of the eye, that is transmitted through the glazing.
Weatherstripping: A strip of resilient material for covering the joint between the window sash and frame in order to reduce air leaks and prevent water from entering the structure.
Weep hole: A small opening in a wall or window sill member through which water may drain to the building exterior.
Window: A glazed opening in an external wall of a building; an entire unit consisting of a frame sash and glazing, and any operable elements.
Window hardware: Various devices and mechanisms for the window including catches, fasteners and locks, hinges, pivots, lifts and pulls, pulleys and sash weights, sash balances, and stays.
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Gabe's Home Improvement
631 West Maple Avenue N.
Springfield, Illinois 62702
Phone: (217) 793-3341
Fax: (217) 522-9333
"Had all new windows and doors installed, Blake and matt done a awesome job installing and cleaning up old windows. I love the windows easy to clean and sound proof and I noticed this winter I didn't have to have my heat as high as last winter. I would recomment Gabes if you need new windows and doors. Good service and product."
- Pam Bumgardner Fickes, via Facebook